- 13 kwietnia 2021
- Autor Autopasja
According to a report by the New York City public tank report, Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), bilateral agricultural trade tripled between 1994 and 2017 and is considered one of the main economic effects of NAFTA on trade between the United States and Canada, with Canada becoming the largest importer of U.S. agricultural sectors.  Fears of job losses in the U.S. manufacturing sector were not due to the fact that manufacturing employment remained “stable”. Given Canada`s labour productivity, which rose to 72% of the U.S. level, hopes of closing the “productivity gap” between the two countries were also not realized.  To see the full text of the agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada, click here. During his 2016 election campaign and presidency, Trump sharply criticized NAFTA (it was often called “perhaps the worst trade deal of all time”  and hailed the USMCA as “an excellent deal for all of us.”  However, the USMCA is very similar to nafta, has adopted many identical provisions and has made only modest changes, mostly cosmetic, and is expected to have only a limited economic impact.  Former U.S. Trade Representative Mickey Kantor, who oversaw the signing of NAFTA during Bill Clinton`s administration, said, “This is really NAFTA of origin.”  Maquiladoras (Mexican assembly plants that absorb imported components and produce goods for export) have become the emblem of trade in Mexico. They left the United States for Mexico, hence the debate about the loss of American jobs. Revenues in the maquiladora sector had increased by 15.5% since nafta in 1994.  Other sectors have also benefited from the free trade agreement and the share of non-cross-border exports to the United States has increased over the past five years [when?], while the share of exports from border states has declined.
This has led to rapid growth in non-cross-border metropolitan areas such as Toluca, Leén and Puebla, all more populated than Tijuana, Ciudad Juérez and Reynosa. According to the Sierra Club, NAFTA has contributed to large-scale export-oriented agriculture, resulting in increased use of fossil fuels, pesticides and GMOs.  NAFTA has also contributed to environmentally harmful mining practices in Mexico.  It has prevented Canada from effectively regulating its oil sands industry and has created new legal opportunities for transnational companies to combat environmental legislation.  In some cases, environmental policy has been neglected as a result of trade liberalization; In other cases, NAFTA`s investment protection measures, such as Chapter 11, and measures to address non-tariff barriers to trade have threatened to discourage stronger environmental policy.  The most severe increases in pollution attributable to NAFTA were in the base metals, Mexican petroleum and transportation equipment sectors in the United States and Mexico, but not in Canada.  After diplomatic negotiations in 1990, the heads of state and government of the three nations signed the agreement on 17 December 1992 in their respective capitals.  The signed agreement had to be ratified by each country`s legislative or parliamentary department.